Y-DNA / Tracking via Father-to-Father Y-Chromosomes
More info to be added soon. SNP testing has shown that we are further defined as DF98 S18823.
The second kind of DNA test which I took uses genetic characteristics of the Y-chromosome that is passed down from father to son. A son will then pass along an almost exact duplicate of their Y-chromosome to their son.
Y-chromosome matching is so unique that it is possible to accurately identify a paternal ancestor as many as 16-20 generations in the past … and it is theoretically possible to go back even much further depending upon what genetic mutations are introduced into the paternal line.
There are various levels of YDNA tests depending upon how much information you want to know.
YDNA tests come in a variety of marker sets: 12, 25, 37, 67, and 111. The different levels of Y-DNA marker tests can reveal different things about your family line. My recommendation is to get the YDNA37 or 67 test.
Below are my core YDNA 12 marker test results. Every male related to me from the last 2,000 years should have at least 10 of these same markers.
My test results are based upon the Y-DNA67 test from Family Tree DNA.
My test results:
- Major Haplogroup: R-M269
— Approximately 80% of western European males fall within this category
— There are however variations (mutations) with R-M269 that indicate evolving lines that are distinguishable from one another.
- Specific Haplogroup subgroup: R-M207 and R-Z306
— R-M207 is believed to have arisen from a common male ancestor approximately 27,000 years ago in western Asia per ISOGG (International Society of Genetic Genealogists).
- Haplogroup longhand designation: R1b1a2a1a1 (2013) = R-M207
— SNPs present in my genetic code (DNA): P310 L52 P311 L11 L151
— The longhand designation has a tendency to change as new discoveries are made. It is recommended to focus on being R-M269 and/or R-M207 as these are far less likely
— A SNP is a single nucleotide polymorphism (pronounced “snip”), a DNA sequence variation that occurs when a single nucleotide in the genome sequence is altered. Once a SNP is acquired (a genetic mutation has occured) then SNPs are evolutionarily stable—rarely changing from generation to generation.
- 2014 Update: National Geographic GENO 2.0 DNA testing has further refined the testing done and discussed on this page. My haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1 R-M207 is now further defined as R1b1a2a1a1c1a R-Z307, both U106. View GENO 2.0 test results.
2,000 years ago
Group R1b is shown dispersed across a wide area of the European and upper Middle East region. One R1b group also migrated to western Africa.
3,000 years ago
So how do I know that my R1b groups are the ones in Denmark and Norway? DNA markers! Across time different R1b branches continued to acquire unique DNA identifers. For our R1b group this is where the longhand DNA designator comes in: R1b1a2a1a1 (2013) = R-M207 P310 L52 P311 L11 L151 tracks to the circled R1b areas.
My different DNA Profiles from different tests: atDNA, mtDNA, Y-DNA (FamilyTreeDNA and NatGeo GENO 2.0).
I am still learning much about DNA so if I got something wrong or misanalyzed something please drop me a line: Norfolk1956@gmail.com
2014.01.21 – Added reference to my GENO 2.0 result which pushed forward my ISOGG designator from R1b1a2a1a1 R-M207 to R1b1a2a1a1c1a R-Z306/7, both U106.